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Reference list: works by same author
Arrange by earliest year first.
Chaplin, P. (2003).
Chaplin, P. (2015).
Reference list: several works, same author (singly), and same author (with others)
Arrange with single author entries first; followed by multiple author entries (do not arrange by date).
Wilson, B. P. (2015).
Wilson, B. P., & Burns, G. S. (2005).
Reference list: Multiple works published by the same author(s) in the same year
Place lower case letters (a, b, c, etc) immediately after the year, within parentheses.
Mulligan, J. N. (2014a). Transport ...
Mulligan, J. N. (2014b). Equality ...
Reference list: Group authors
Spell out the full name of the group author.
Example: National Centre for Vocational Education Research
Reference list: publication dates
Where no publication date is evident, write n.d. in parentheses
Reference list: Arabic numerals
Use Arabic numerals for volume numbers of books and journals (not Roman numerals)
Example: Vol. 4 (not Vol. IV)
Citing and Referencing help
- When authors' names are written into the text of your assignment, do not use the ampersand (&). The correct format is: Wayne and Loomis (1997) contend ...
- When the authors' names are included in brackets in the in-text citation, use the ampersand (&) before the last author. The correct format is: (Wayne & Loomis 1997).
- In the reference list, include "&" before the last author's name. Do not use "and". The correct format is Williams, J Urlich, P & Taggerty, A.
Reference list: indentation
A hanging indent is required. Indent the second and subsequent lines of the reference. Example:
Smith, P. (1999). Social norms and matters of social class evident in the first
decade of nineteenth century western Europe. Berlin, Germany: Schumann.
Reference list: what to include, and what to exclude
Include: all references that document the article and provide recoverable data (APA Style Guide, p.180).
Exclude: personal communications, such as letters, memoranda, and informal electronic communication (cite personal communication only in text), and other items that are not possible for the reader to recover or access (APA Style Guide, p.180).
Reference list: arrangement
- Arrange entries in alphabetical order by surname of the first author, followed by initials of the author's given name.
- Treat Mc and Mac alphabetically (not as if they were all spelled "Mac").
Example: Macarthur, followed by Macquarie, then McAdam, and McBeth
Reference list: publishers and locations
- For publishers' names: exercise brevity by omitting terms such as Publisher, Co., and Inc. Retain words Books and Press.
- For publishers' locations in the US: provide city, and state abbreviation
- For publishers' locations outside the US: provide city and country
- Abbreviations for US states and territories: use the official two-letter US Postal Abbreviations
- Where two or more publisher locations are listed in the book, give the first location listed
Source: American Psychological Association 2011, Publication manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th edn, American Psychological Association, Washington, DC.