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Referencing Fundamentals: Formatting APA

Reference list: works by same author

Arrange by earliest year first.
Chaplin, P. (2015).
Chaplin, P. (2022).

Reference list: several works, same author (singly), and same author (with others)

Arrange with single author entries first; followed by multiple author entries (do not arrange by date).
Wilson, B. P. (2022).
Wilson, B. P., & Burns, G. S. (2023).

Reference list: Multiple works published by the same author(s) in the same year

Place lower case letters (a, b, c, etc) immediately after the year, within parentheses.
Mulligan, J. N. (2021a). Transport ...
Mulligan, J. N. (2021b). Equality ...

Reference list: Group authors

Spell out the full name of the group author.
Example: National Centre for Vocational Education Research

Reference list: publication dates

Where no publication date is evident, write n.d. in parentheses
Example:  (n.d.).

Reference list: Arabic numerals

Use Arabic numerals for volume numbers of books and journals (not Roman numerals)
Example:  Vol. 4  (not Vol. IV)

Citing and Referencing help

For more APA referencing examples please refer to ERNI Easy Referencing

Authors' names

  • When authors' names are written into the text of your assignment, do not use the ampersand (&).  The correct format is:  Wayne and Loomis (2019) contend ...
  • When the authors' names are included in brackets in the in-text citation, use the ampersand (&) before the last author.  The correct format is:  (Wayne & Loomis 2019).
  • In the reference list, include "&" before the last author's name.  Do not use "and".  The correct format is Williams, J Urlich, P & Taggerty, A.  

Reference list: indentation

A hanging indent is required.  Indent the second and subsequent lines of the reference.  Example:
Smith, P. (2021). Social norms and matters of social class evident in the first
      decade of nineteenth century western Europe
.  Berlin, Germany: Schumann.

Reference list: what to include, and what to exclude

Include:  all references that document the article and provide recoverable data (APA Style Guide, p.180).

Exclude:  personal communications, such as letters, memoranda, and informal electronic communication (cite personal communication only in text), and other items that are not possible for the reader to recover or access  (APA Style Guide, p.180).

Reference list: arrangement

  • Arrange entries in alphabetical order by surname of the first author, followed by initials of the author's given name.
  • Treat Mc and Mac alphabetically (not as if they were all spelled "Mac").
    Example:  Macarthur, followed by Macquarie, then McAdam, and McBeth

Reference list: publishers and locations

  • For publishers' names:  exercise brevity by omitting terms such as Publisher, Co., and Inc.  Retain words Books and Press.
  • For publishers' locations in the US: provide city, and state abbreviation
  • For publishers' locations outside the US: provide city and country
  • Abbreviations for US states and territories: use the official two-letter US Postal Abbreviations
  • Where two or more publisher locations are listed in the book, give the first location listed

APA Abbreviations


Source:  American Psychological Association  2019, Publication manual of the American Psychological Association, 7th edn, American Psychological Association, Washington, DC.