Tab 1: Reference sources
ERNI Easy Referencing: Melbourne Polytechnic Library's online style guides for creating Harvard and APA references: https://melbournepolytechnic.spydus.com/reference.html
ZOTERO free software for referencing the easy way
Citing & referencing is a two-fold process
1. creating in-text citations
2. preparing reference lists & bibliographies
Tab 2: Basic Referencing Principles
What is referencing?
Referencing is about acknowledging the work of others which you've used to create a work of your own.
What should be referenced?
Quotes - when you use another person's exact words
Paraphrases - when you use your own words to express another person's ideas
Copies - when you make an identical version of another person's work
Summaries - when you write a brief description of another person's ideas
Why do you need to reference?
Good quality referencing ensures that you ...
Avoid plagiarism - To use the work of others without acknowledgement is plagiarism. It may carry serious penalties.
Add support to your paper - Other people's ideas provide evidence that backs up the arguments you make in your assignments.
Help readers to follow up on the points you've made - Readers of your work may wish to consult your information sources.
Display courtesy - Remember ... when you borrow something, it's always customary to acknowledge the lender
Tab 3: In-text Citations
1. are placed throughout your paper at any point where you have used the work of another
2. can refer to either a paraphrase of a quotation
Tab 4: Reference Lists & Bibliographies
Reference lists and bibliographies are placed at the end of an essay or other written work
Reference list or bibliography?
Reference lists contain details of items you have referred to (quoted or used) in your assignment.
Bibliographies include all the items you used to research and write your assignment, even if they are not directly referred to, or quoted in your assignment.
Note: APA Style generally requires reference lists, not bibliographies (Information source: American Psychological Association, 2011, Publication manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th edn, APA, Washington, DC.
Tab 5: Formatting APA
1. When authors' names are written into the text of your assignment, do not use the ampersand (&). The word "and" should be spelt out in full. An example of the correct format is Wayne and Loomis (1997) contend ...
2. When authors' names are included in brackets in the in-text citation, use the ampersand (&) before the last author. An example of the correct format is (Wayne & Loomis, 1997).
3. In the reference list, include "&" before the last author's name. Do not use "and". The correct format is Williams, J, Urlich, P & Taggerty, A.
Reference list: indentation
A hanging indent is required. Indent the second and subsequent lines of the reference. Example:
Smith, P. (1999), Social norms and matters of social class evident in the first
decade of nineteenth century western Europe. Berlin, Germany: Schumann.
Reference list: what to include, and what to exclude?
Include: all references that document the article and provide recoverable data (APA Style Guide, p.180)
Exclude: personal communications, such as letters, memoranda, and informal electronic communication (cite personal communication only in text), and other items that are not possible for the reader to recover or access (APA Style Guide, p.180)
Reference list: arrangement
Arrange entries in alphabetical order by surname of the first author, followed by initials of the author's given name
Treat Mc and Mac alphabetically (not as if they were all spelt "Mac")
Example: Macarthur, followed by Macquarie, then McAdam, and McBeth
Reference list: publishers and locations
For publishers' names: exercise brevity by omitting terms such as Publisher, Co., and Inc. Retain words Books and Press.
For publishers' locations in the US: provide city, and state abbreviation
For publishers' locations outside the US: provide city and country
Abbreviations for US states and territories: use the official two-letter US Postal Abbreviations (available on the Web, and in Wikipedia)
Where two or more publisher locations are listed in the book, give the first location listed
ed. = edition
Rev. ed. = Revised edition
2nd ed. = Second edition
Ed.(Eds.) = Editor (Editors)
n.d. = no date
p. (pp.) = page (pages)
Vol. = Volume (as in Vol.4)
Vols. = Volumes (as in Vols.1-4)
No. = Number
Pt. = Part
Reference list: works by the same author
Arrange by earliest year first
Chaplin, P (2003)
Chaplin, P (2015)
Reference list: several works, same author (singly), and same author (with others)
Arrange with single author entries first, followed by multiple author entries (do not arrange by date)
Wilson, B.P. (2015)
Wilson, B.P. & Burns, G.S. (2005)
Reference list: multiple works published by the same author(s) in the same year
Place lower case letters (a, b, c etc) immediately after the year, within parentheses:
Mulligan, J.N. (2014a). Transport ...
Mulligan, J.N. (2014b). Equality ...
Reference list: group authors
Spell out the full name of the group author.
Example: National Centre for Vocational Education Research
Reference list: publication dates
Where no publication date is evident, write n.d. in parentheses
Reference list: Arabic numerals
Use Arabic numerals for volume numbers of books and journals (not Roman numerals)
Example: Vol.4 (not Vol.IV)
The information in this section: Formatting APA is derived from American Psychological Association, 2011, Publication manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th edn, American Psychological Association, Washington, DC.
Tab 6: Formatting Harvard
Cite the authors' names in the order they are listed on the book's title page
In-text references require author's surname only - initials are not necessary
Reference list citations require both author's surname and initial
When the authors' names are written into the text of your assignment, do not use the ampersand (&). The correct format is:
Wayne and Loomis (1997) contend ...
When the authors' names are included in brackets in the in-text citation, use the ampersand before the last author. The correct format is:
(Wayne & Loomis, 1997).
In the reference list, include "&" before the last author's name. Do not use "and". The correct format is Williams, J, Urlich, P & Taggerty, A.
When creating an in-text citation for four or more authors, list the name of the first author, followed by et al.
When creating a reference list citation for four or more authors, list all authors and do not use et al.
For a single editor, abbreviate to ed.
For several editors, abbreviate to eds (omit the full stop)
Use edn (no full stop) instead of edition
Use lower case for ed., eds and edn.
Where the date of publication can't be found, consider using one of these options:
Search for the title in FindIT@MP. The catalogue record may reveal the date.
Search Trove at the National Library. They may have a record containing the correct date.
Use an approximate date, but only do this if you have evidence that the approximation is accurate within a small range of years. The approximate date entry in your citation will look like this: (Rigby c.2014) ("c." is an abbreviation of "circa", which is Latin for "around").
Use a question mark to indicate that the date is uncertain: (Rigby 2014?)
Use "n.d." to indicate no known date: (Rigby n.d.)
When quoting, always include page numbers in your in-text citation
The Harvard Style Guide specifies single quote marks for quotations
However, if your work is to be uploaded to Turnitin, place all quotations in double quote marks
Do not use full stops in abbreviated place names (NY not N.Y.)
Where several places are listed on the title page, cite the first
In text citations: punctuation
Insert a comma after the publication year, followed by the page number
Example: (Walsh 2013, p.23)
Capitalise the first word of the title, and any proper nouns in the title.
The heart is a lonely hunter
Midnight in Paris
All about the German shepherd dog
Antonio Carluccio's vegetables
Page number abbreviations
Use p. for a single page (Example: Walsh 2013, p.23)
Use pp. for a page range (Example: Walsh 2013, pp.21-30)
Tab 7: Test Yourself
Sources used in this guide
Style manual for authors, editors and printers, 2002, 6th edn, John Wiley, Milton, QLD.
Latrobe University, Academic referencing tool, view 29 January 2018
University of Melbourne, re:cite, viewed 29 January, 2018